نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مقدمه: سایه ­نویسی که خلق و ایجاد اثر برای و به نام دیگری است غالباً همراه با اعطای نویسندگی یا نویسنده مهمان است. گرچه این پدیده زاده دوران مدرن نیست و سالهاست که خدمات سایه­نویسی در عرصه­های مختلفی چون سیاست، حقوق و... مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرد، اما سایه­ نویسی دانشگاهی به‌واسطه ظهور و گسترش استفاده از فناوری­ های نوین ابعاد تازه ­تری به خود گرفته است. ظهور مؤسسات مختلفی که به ارائه انواع متنوعی از خدمات در زمینه نوشتن مقاله، پایان­ نامه و رساله می ­پردازند موجب بروز پیامدهای منفی چون لطمه به شهرت و اعتبار نهادی، نقض اصالت و تمامیت علمی شده است. بدین جهت سیاست­گذار جنایی کشور در حمایت از علم و اصالت تولیدات علمی به این پدیده واکنش نشان داده است. ازاین‌رو، هدف این پژوهش ارائه شناخت و آگاهی بخشی نسبت به سایه­ نویسی و ابعاد مختلف آن و نیز آشنایی با رویکرد قانون­گذار در مقابله با این پدیده می­ باشد.
روش ­شناسی: روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش توصیفی و تحلیلی است و شیوه جمع­ آوری اطلاعات به‌صورت کتابخانه ­ای است.
یافته ­ها: سایه ­نویسی و اجاره علمی (استفاده از شخص ثالث برای آماده کردن کار پژوهشی) نقض هنجارهای اخلاقی و قانونی می‌باشد. سایه ­نویسی در قانون پیش­گیری و مقابله با تقلب در تهیه آثار علمی جرم ­انگاری شده است. قانون­گذار با دو شیوه پیش­بینی ضمانت اجراها و استراتژی ­های پیش­گیری به مقابله با سایه­ نویسی پرداخته است. به‌موجب این قانون، ارائه خدمات سایه­ نویسی جرم بوده و مشمول مجازات کیفری می­باشد و استفاده از اثری که توسط سایه ­نویس آماده شده در دانشگاه ­ها به‌عنوان اثر خود تخلف بوده و مشمول مجازات­ های اداری و انتظامی می­گردد.
نتیجه گیری‌­: به‌منظور مقابله مؤثر با این پدیده در جامعه علمی نیازمند اتخاذ سیاست ­های مدون و کدهای اخلاقی و حقوقی شفاف و جامع­تر هستیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognizing Ghostwriting from Plagiarism: Concept, Types and Legal Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Salehabadi 1
  • Seyed Mahdi Seidzadeh Sani 2
  • Abdolreza Javan Jafari Bojnordi 3

1 PhD Student in Criminal Law and Criminology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Ghostwriting, which is the creation of a work for and under another name, is often accompanied by the gift authorship or guest authorship. Although this phenomenon is not born of modern times and ghostwriting services have been used in various fields such as politics, law, etc. for many years, academic ghostwriting is due to the emergence and expansion of the use of new technologies has taken on new dimensions. The emergence of various institutions that provide a variety of services in the field of writing articles, dissertations and thesis has caused negative consequences such as damage to institutional reputation, violation of originality and scientific integrity. Therefore, the country's criminal policymaker has reacted to this phenomenon in support of science and the originality of scientific products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide knowledge and awareness about ghostwriting and its various dimensions, as well as familiarity with the legislator's approach to dealing with this phenomenon in order to take measures to prevent it.
Methodology: The method used in this research is descriptive and analytical and the method of collecting data is literature review.
Findings: Ghostwriting and scientific rent (using a third party to prepare research work) is a violation of ethical and legal norms. Ghostwriting has been criminalized under the Law on Prevention and Combating Fraud in the Preparation of Scientific Works. The legislature has dealt with ghostwriting in two ways: predicting sanctions and preventing strategies. According to this law, providing ghostwriting services is a crime and subject to criminal punishment and using a work produced by a ghostwriter as their own work in universities is a violation and subject to administrative and disciplinary sanctions.
Conclusion: In order to effectively deal with this phenomenon in the scientific community, we need to adopt clearer and more comprehensive policies and ethical and legal codes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ghostwriting
  • Outsourcing
  • Honorary Author
  • Gift Author
  • Punishment
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