عنوان مقاله [English]
INTRUDUCTION: Principles and laws play the role of expressing the most basic ideas in a science field and establishing a framework or methodology for problem solving in the field. After an overview of the concepts and quadripartite orders of cybernetics, this paper tries to review the cybernetic principles based on the classical and modern physics approaches.
METHODOLOGY: This article tries to review related literature through analytical method. In the research, after a brief view on the concepts and fourth orders of cybernetics, the principles of this science from the point of view of positivist and hermeneutics approaches have been studied.
FINDINGS: Attitude to the universe caused the formation of different perspectives on science as well as the advancement of scientific knowledge. Initially, the positivist approach was established, based on Newton's theory and a mechanical view. Then the post-positivists laid down the rules of biology according to the two principles of necessity and accident. With development of quantum and relativity theories in physics along with encountering the incapacities of classical physics in a few cases, the understanding of the world and its phenomena has been completely changed. The transition from Newtonian physics (classical physics) to quantum physics (modern physics) caused the philosophical and theoretical development. According to this rotation, the theoretical foundations of science were also changed. Cybernetics also benefits from this view. The review of literature was showed that the intellectual basis of the cybernetics principles is a combination of the approaches positivist, organistic, system worldview, and modern physics.
CONCLUSIONS: Traditional solutions do not respond to the turmoil in the current world. Therefore, we need new solutions to control the complexities of this world and the existing era. Cybernetics is one of these solutions. The difference in understanding the concepts of observation and observer is what led to the formation of different approaches and worldviews in the sciences and later in cybernetics, in an extent that the emergence of the new physics could be introduced as an intervention of the observer in the event. A world in which the observer is not separate from what he/she observes, but is part of the same phenomenon, while in classical physics, all phenomena occur independent of the observer as a precise and lawful clock with a particular order. Therefore, we can say that the intellectual basis of generations and principles of cybernetics is a future of positivist, organistic, systemic worldview and new physics perspectives. Accordingly, the cybernetic approach has relied on the dominant perspectives over its short life span.