Characteristics and Role of Reference Source of Printed and Electronic Tourist Directory in Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor; Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc), Tehran, Iran

2 . Expert in Information Science and Knowledge; Salam Non-Governmental School, Tehran, Iran,



Introduction: Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors and tourist. Also, tourism is travel for pleasure or business, and the commercial activity of providing and supporting such travel. Tourism is one of the important activities in the contemporary era, which plays an important role in the economy of countries. Tourism directory is the tour travel reference for tourists and travelers. This guide contains information about tourist spots, historical, cultural and attractive places for travelers. It also has the listing of associations, organizations and services in travel and tourism. Tourism directory is a tourism information reference with news, events, and tourism festivals. These guides are also important reference sources that provide users with valuable information. Furthermore, there are many directories travel available on the web and print format. But finding the right one that contains the most comprehensive information, details about different destinations, or other travel-related resources can be a tedious task. Searching properly always helps us discover the best travel deals. This study sought to determine the characteristics of printed and electronic tourist guides, Design and organize it in Iran.
Method: This research is applied in terms of the objective and is survey-analytic in terms of the nature and method. The research population consisted of all employees of Department of Tourism and Cultural Heritage Organization in Tehran whose number is 143 individuals. Due to limited population, no sampling was carried out. The instrument for data collection in this study was a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by formal validity method. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for construct validity. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.879. The information obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software version 19.
Findings: Findings showed that the relationship between the use of tourist guides in Iran to receive information and the use of tourist guides with an average of 53.093 and a significant level (0.017) with a T-statistic value of 2.41 less than the error level of 0.05 was obtained. Also, regarding the relationship between Iranian tourist guides in terms of shape and use of tourist guides, the average was 57.33 with a value of T= 318.5 less than the error level of 0.05. In addition, there was a correlation between the use of up-to-date technologies and the use of tourist guides, with an average of 64.97 with a T-statistic of 10.26 less than the error level of 0.05. Also, the existence of a relationship between the use of electronic tourism guides in Iran to receive information and tourist guides, with an average of 57.04 with a value of T of 4.97 less than the error level of 0.05 was determined. Then, the existence of a relationship between electronic tourism guides in Iran in terms of shape and audience attraction, equal to an average of 57.04 with a value of T of 4.97 less than the error level of 0.05 was determined. As a result, all research hypotheses were confirmed. Findings indicate that printed and electronic tourism guides can play an effective role in improving travelers' cognition. These guides can also increase the desire to travel among tourists.
Conclusion: Tourism can be called as a service industry with a value-creating economic function. Tourism is one of the important pillars of the country's development. Therefore, it is important to pay more attention to the factors related to it. The results showed that the use of tourist guides in Iran to receive information and use them properly in encouraging tourists and better understanding of cultural and historical spaces. Advances in technology have led to the use of tools such as social networks, web space, specialized tourism software, which has a positive effect on attracting the audience. Smartphone compatible apps can increase tourism activity. In addition, Sharing tourism information among travelers is one of the most important ways to find out about tourism was found that sharing information online can be a factor in enhancing the use of e-guides. Therefore, users' experiences are shared on websites, blogs, and some social networks. Designing tourist guides based on the opinions of tourists and their interests can attract more audiences and encourage them to make more use of enriched guides. It has also provided the conditions that they can use these guides during the trip in an online way. It should be stated that, anyway, the media play a significant role in strengthening the tourism industry, and whether in connection with print or electronic media, using these useful tools in the virtual space can lead to the strengthening of this important sector in the national economy.


Abubakirova, A., Syzdykova, A., Kelesbayev, D., Dandayeva, B., & Ermankulova, R. (2016). Place of Tourism in the Economy of Kazakhstan Republic. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39, 3-6. doi:
Afolalu, C., OIatunji, K., & Nwagbo, C. (2016). A point-of-interest directory for mobile tourists in Abuja, Nigeria. computing, 3(10), 5642-5650.
Ahmad, S., Ullah, I., Mehmood, F., Fayaz, M., & Kim, D. (2019). A Stochastic Approach Towards Travel Route Optimization and Recommendation Based on Users Constraints Using Markov Chain. IEEE Access, 7, 90760-90776. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2926675
Aktymbayeva, B., Koshkimbayeva, U., Abisheva, Z., Tokbergenova, U., & Tumazhanova, M. (2020). Tourism Industry Development And Governance: A Comparative Stage Review Of Kazakhstan’s Experience For The Years Of Independence, 1991-2020. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 34, 69-76. doi: 10.30892/gtg.34110-621
Alghizzawi, M., Salloum, S., & Habes, M. (2018). The role of social media in tourism marketing in Jordan. 2, 59-70.
Antonyuk, N., Vysotska, V., Lytvyn, V., Burov, Y., Demchuk, A., Lyudkevych, I., . . . Bobyk, I. (2019). Consolidated Information Web Resource for Online Tourism Based on Data Integration and Geolocation. Paper presented at the 2019 IEEE 14th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (17-20 Sept.).
Aroca, P., Brida, J. G., & Volo, S. (2017). Tourism statistics:Correcting data inadequacy. Tourism Economics, 23(1), 99-112. doi:
Arshad, M. I., Iqbal, M. A., & Shahbaz, M. (2018). Pakistan tourism industry and challenges: a review. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(2), 121-132. doi: 10.1080/10941665.2017.1410192
Bello, F., Lovelock, B., & Carr, N. (2016). Constraints of community participation in protected area-based tourism planning: the case of Malawi. Journal of Ecotourism, 16, 1-21. doi: 10.1080/14724049.2016.1251444
Bello, F. G., Lovelock, B., & Carr, N. (2018). Enhancing community participation in tourism planning associated with protected areas in developing countries Lessons from Malawi. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(3), 309-320.
Berhanu, M., Raghuvanshi, T., & Suryabhagavan, K. (2017). Web-Based GIS Approach for Tourism Development in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia. Malaysian Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, 6, 13-24.
Brščić, K., Prats, L., Raschi, A., Marchi, V., Šugar Korda, T., Lovrečić, K., & Poljuha, D. (2020). Can indicators for sustainable tourism improve tourism planning in the coastal destinations? Empirical evidence from Catalonia, Istrian Region and Tuscany Region. Tourism, 68. doi: 10.37741/t.68.2.3
Buhalis, D. (2020). Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1), 267-272. doi: 10.1108/TR-06-2019-0258
Chaudhary, B., & Kaur, A. (2020). Repercussions of the introduction of ict in the tourism industry.
Dolan, R., Seo, Y., & Kemper, J. (2019). Complaining practices on social media in tourism: A value co-creation and co-destruction perspective. Tourism Management, 73, 35-45. doi:
Eccleston, R. E., Hardy, A. L., & Hyslop, S. (2020). Unlocking the Potential of Tracking Technology for Co-created Tourism Planning and Development: Insights from the Tourism Tracer Tasmania Project. Tourism Planning & Development, 17(1), 82-95. doi: 10.1080/21568316.2019.1683884
Fakana, S., Alemken, & Mengist, A . (2019). Factors Hindering Tourism Industry Development: Gambella People's National Regional State, South West Ethiopia.
Gulmira, T., Sobirov, B., Suyunovich, T. I., & Hasanovna, A. D. Implementation Of Up-To–Date Innovative Approaches In A Competitive Merit Of Tourism Industry In Central Asia. The Case Of Uzbekistan. Journal of Management Value & Ethics, 7(3), 4-15.
Hamouda, M. (2018). Understanding social media advertising effect on consumers’ responses. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 31(3), 426-445. doi: 10.1108/JEIM-07-2017-0101
Hur, K., Kim, T. T., Karatepe, O. M., & Lee, G. (2017). An exploration of the factors influencing social media continuance usage and information sharing intentions among Korean travellers. Tourism Management, 63, 170-178. doi:
Leal, F., Dias, J. M., Malheiro, B., & Burguillo, J. C. (2016). Analysis and Visualisation of Crowd-sourced Tourism Data. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Ninth International C* Conference on Computer Science & Software Engineering, Porto, Portugal.
Li, H. (2021). Internet Tourism Resource Retrieval Using PageRank Search Ranking Algorithm. Complexity, 2021, 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2021/5114802
Lin, D., & Simmons, D. (2017). Structured inter-network collaboration: Public participation in tourism planning in Southern China. Tourism Management, 63, 315-328. doi:
Matikiti, R., Mpinganjira, M., & Roberts-Lombard, P. (2018). Application of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Technology–Organisation–Environment Model to examine social media marketing use in the South African tourism industry. SA Journal of Information Management, 20. doi: 10.4102/sajim.v20i1.790
Matiku, S., Zuwarimwe, J., & Tshipala, N. (2020). Sustainable tourism planning and management for sustainable livelihoods. Development Southern Africa, 38, 1-15. doi: 10.1080/0376835X.2020.1801386
Michna, F. D., Santos, B. D., & Norman, B. M. (2016). Democratic tourism service directory maps to help the whale shark. . QScience Proceedings (The 4th International Whale Shark Conference) 2016:iwsc4.35, doi:
Molefe, P., Tauoatsoala, P., Sifolo, P., Pfarelo, S., Unathi, M., Henama, S., & Henama, U. (2018). The effects of tourism supply chain management practices on tourism operations in Pretoria, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7.
Na, L., Xueyuan, W., & Yulian, X. (2016). Hotel Information Platform Design and Implementation Based on Cloud Computing. International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology, 9, 61-72. doi: 10.14257/ijhit.2016.9.3.06
Nikhil, N., & Saraswathy, S. (2015). Attitude of the Tourists towards Responsible Tourism. International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering, 5, 49-65.
Oliveira, T., Araujo, B., & Tam, C. (2020). Why do people share their travel experiences on social media? Tourism Management, 78, 104041. doi:
Olufunke, A. P., & Oghenekaro, A. P. (2020). Promoting hospitality and tourism through library and information services in the 21st century. Journal of Service Science and Management, 13(4), 702-708. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2020.134.44.
Saito, H., & Ruhanen, L. (2017). Power in tourism stakeholder collaborations: Power types and power holders. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 189-196. doi:
Sedarati, P., Santos, S., & Pintassilgo, P. (2018). System Dynamics in Tourism Planning and Development. Tourism Planning and Development, 16. doi: 10.1080/21568316.2018.1436586
Singhal, N., & GOEL, S. K. (2021). Problems And Prospects Of Tourism Industry In India–With Special Reference To Uttar Pradesh. Ilkogretim Online, 20(6), 2720-2729. doi: 10.17051/ilkonline.2021.06.252
Singhal, N., & Khattri, V. (2018). Impact of Social Media on Consumer Attitude and Purchase Decision in Travel and Tourism Industry. 8, 151-162.
Soualah-Alila, F., Coustaty, M., Rempulski, N., & Doucet, A. (2016). DataTourism: designing an architecture to process tourism data. A. Inversini und R. Schegg. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2016, 751-763.
Tsai, T.-H., Chang, H.-T., Lin, Y.-W., Yu, M.-C., Lien, P.-J., Yan, W.-C., & Ho, W.-L. (2018). Emerging Social Media and Social Networks Analysis Transforms the Tourism Industry: Living Green Smart Tourism Ecosystem. Paper presented at the Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Virtual, Augmented, and Intelligent Environments, Cham.
Var, T., & Gunn, C. (2020). Tourism planning: Basics, concepts, cases: Routledge.
Vu, H. Q., Li, G., Law, R., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Tourist Activity Analysis by Leveraging Mobile Social Media Data. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 883-898. doi: 10.1177/0047287517722232
Wenjun, Z., & Guoqiang, L. (2019). Characteristics of sichuan cultural tourism industry and its internationalization. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 9(1), 1-19.
Xiang, Z. (2018). From digitization to the age of acceleration: On information technology and tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 25, 147-150. doi:
Ying, Z. (2020). Research on Guangdong Tourism Resources Development and Integration Development under the Background of Rural Revitalization Strategy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 546, 032013. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/546/3/032013
Zhang, S., Zhen, F., Wang, B., Li, Z., & Qin, X. (2020). Coupling Social Media and Agent-Based Modelling: A Novel Approach for Supporting Smart Tourism Planning. Journal of Urban Technology, 29(2), 79-97. doi: 10.1080/10630732.2020.1847987
Zhou, X., & Chen, W. (2021). The Impact of Informatization on the Relationship between the Tourism Industry and Regional Economic Development. Sustainability, 13(16), 93-99.